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Metronic is the 1 best-selling responsive HTML template on ThemeForest with more than 25, sales since it was introduced in the market in It is a multi-purpose admin and fronted theme running on Twitter Bootstrap 3. To date, the theme has 4 complete admin themes and 3 front end themes. Biss is filled with extra functionality from modern web technologies taking all the best features from Biss PSD and adding it together to enable you to create a unique website.

Advanced JQuery techniques brings awesome features like dropdown effects, carousels, sorting and much more. BuildPress is designed with the construction industry in mind. Only made available on the market in March 2o15, the theme has been making steady sales with more than a already. The template is using W3C valid code and has features that make your one-page website look awesome. You can choose from 8 color schemes and animated transitions.

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Palas is a fully responsive HTML5 template which allows you to easily build a business, e-commerce, corporate, agency, blog, portfolio website, or even more with a little creativity. Built with Bootstrap 3. Its copy and paste features allows you to build a website in such a short time even if you are just a beginner. The template is compatible with Bootstrap 3 as well as with other major browsers. Some of the features include booking pages, search box which comes in three styles, 8 header styles, and 7 footer styles.

Just made available on the market in February , Housebuild has already sold around units. Some of its clients praise it for its code quality. It has features that are ideal for corporate websites or for a web hosting business. Automotive , as the name suggests, is a car dealership template which includes easy-to-use functionality and a well-designed inventory management system which is ideal for a small to large car dealership business.

The template includes features designed for the car industry. Some included features are a completely customizable, filterable, and sortable Inventory Search to search your Vehicle Listings and a Loan Calculator. The template has a WordPress version which has a fully functional Inventory Management System feature.

Other added bonuses are the 32 pixel-perfect fully layered Photoshop files and the grid help lines powered by Bootstrap 3. Base Hotel is a fully responsive HTML template designed with the travel and hotel businesses in mind. The template is packed with a large photo gallery as well as 20 high resolution photos to help you showcase the best features of your hotel, resort, or travel agency. It also has a Promotional Pop-up box which informs your visitors and clients of any special or promotional offer you have at the moment.

MaterialX is based on Materialize and Twitter Bootstrap and was designed with professionals in mind in order to give them a place where they can build their portfolio or resume using a clean and modern design. The theme can be easily customized, is responsive, and is ready for all devices. Powered by Bootstrap3. It is loaded with features that can be used to provide general city attraction information, buy tickets, tours, tour guides and any other related services.

The template is compatible with different browsers and comes with 4 home pages, 3 header types, and 4 color schemes. If you are looking for an ultra modern web design template that will do justice for your restaurant or food business, Elixir has features that provide you what you want. It comes with 4 different home pages with parallax sections allowing you to add 3D looking parallax animations. The code is well-written and the files are well commented making it easy to use and set up. ShopMe , as the name suggests, is an e-Commerce web-page template designed by Mad Velikorodnov.

It is filled with an extensive array of features to make your e-Commerce website unique. Some of the design elements included are promo popup, quick view, 6 homepage layouts, 4 categories, and 3 product layout variations. Its home page and header layouts have 6 variations each as well as each of the footer layouts.

You can also choose from either the vertical or horizontal drop-down menu. If you want to present your products in different ways, there are 4 different types of product box styles to choose from. Still relatively new, this minimalist and modern portfolio template has already made the Most Popular list of ThemeForest not only because of its features, but also for its clean look.

Its design is perfect for anyone who wants to showcase their portfolio and build their personal brand online. Designed by F Media, Extended is another relatively new responsive HTML5 template on ThemeForest which is aimed at creatives who want to display their portfolio or showcase their business and services. Its clean and modern design provides the right balance to clearly show the content and graphics in the most professional way. These templates are going to make your designing process even easier. These templates offer a page builder no coding required , that can simplify and shorten your designing process.

Developed by ThemesLab, Make is the first theme that includes the Admin Builder allowing you to customize your admin. The admin template is built with Bootstrap 3 and is fully responsive for multi-usage. It has a great number of layout options including RTL, boxed, and sidebar on top as well as a One Page Frontend where you can easily services, product or app. With their latest updates, new features and plugins have been added. Some of these features include additional Page Builder options, such as animated counter, 4 user widgets, and the possibility to move form elements inside a form.

ThemeKit is a multiple premium HTML templates refined for various niches, with specialized industry features and a vast UI framework developed for sustaining your projects in the long run. It is built on Bootstrap allowing you to develop responsive, mobile first projects on the web. Moreover, ThemeKit can seamlessly adapt to any screen size and device, and supports at least the last 4 versions of every modern browser. Lightbox HTML5 photo gallery, 3 menu types, and many more. Web developers can use the Force Touch APIs to add new dimensions of interactivity to their web pages on devices that support Force Touch.

Safari supports real-time push notifications from a server. With support for Mathematical Markup Language MathML , Safari allows developers to embed mathematical notation in a web page without using an image file. By taking advantage of the Scalable Vector Graphics SVG support in Safari, web developers can create fonts, graphic elements, and animations on the fly that look great no matter how large or small they are.

For example, mapping sites often use SVG to draw driving directions based on your location and destination. Safari uses advanced color management technology to deliver web images with rich, accurate color. In fact, it was the first browser to support International Color Consortium ICC profiles and has done so from day one, so the photos and images you see in your browser stay true to the originals.

Extensible Markup Language XML is a popular open industry standard for creating, managing, and sharing structured data. Download Safari Technology Preview. Features in Safari. CSS Initial Letter Initial letter CSS improves usability and creates visual interest by adding a visual marker to the beginning of new sections of content.

CSS Backdrop Filters Backdrop filters allows webpages to easily create visual layering that adds a sense of depth, while preventing details in the content underneath, even videos, from cluttering the foreground content. CSS Regions Safari supports complex, magazine-like layouts for webpages. CSS Quotation Marks CSS quotation marks are now language sensitive, allowing your webpages to display the right quotation marks for your language character set.

CSS Animation CSS animation, an open standard that brings a new level of interactivity to the web, lets web designers scale, rotate, fade, and skew web elements to create cutting-edge websites. CSS Scroll Snapping Scroll snapping with CSS allows web pages to smoothly end user scrolling with content elements always perfectly aligned in the view.

The web’s most popular front-end template

CSS4 Pseudo-Classes New CSS4 pseudo-classes make it easier than ever to apply styles to any link, based on the current language, a numbered element, or when an input placeholder is shown. CSS Effects Pioneered by Safari, CSS effects help developers add polish to websites by stylizing images and photos with eye-catching gradients, precise masks, and stunning reflections that require only a few lines of code.

CSS3 Web Fonts CSS3 web fonts allow web designers to create stunning websites using the fonts they prefer rather than restricting themselves to "web-safe fonts. CSS3 Vertical Text Developers can use top-to-bottom text layouts in web pages, allowing for greater customization of websites in languages that use vertical text, such as Chinese and Japanese. Picture-in-Picture for macOS Now available for macOS, Picture in Picture lets users float a video window from Safari over their desktop or full-screen app — even if they switch desktop spaces. Enhanced Rich Links Ensure all the rich website links that appear throughout macOS in Safari, Messages, Notes and more include the information you want to show them.

Picture Element Support Thanks to Picture Element Support, Safari will automatically display the appropriate image for each media query breakpoint when you provide it with multiple image resources and sizes. HTML5 Geolocation With Safari support for HTML5 geolocation, you can choose to share your location with certain websites that use it to provide relevant information, such as maps or nearby businesses. HTML5 Sectioning Elements Support for article, aside, footer, header, hgroup, nav, and section elements allows developers to create advanced web designs with semantic markup.

HTML5 Sandbox Attribute With support for the sandbox attribute for iframe elements, Safari can restrict the actions of contents hosted inside an iframe. Inline Video and Autoplay on iOS To help users easily discover your video content, you can now autoplay videos and play them inline with other content on your webpages on all iOS devices. Shadow DOM Shadow DOM makes it much easier to build column gutter padding-top-small padding-bottom-small large-scale web applications since developers can encapsulate elements on a webpage and define how they interact in the applications.

HTML5 Ruby Safari can display annotations alongside the main text in a web page, allowing pronunciation annotations in web pages that use Chinese, Japanese, or Korean characters.

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HTML 4. HTML5 Draggable Attribute Safari makes it easier for developers to create web pages with drag-and-drop user interfaces for items like photos or images. JavaScript Classes New syntax for JavaScript object-oriented development makes it much simpler to create objects and handle object inheritance. For…of Loops Web developers can use for…of loops to more easily iterate over the property values of objects.

Symbol Objects With symbols, web developers can create unique identifier objects for protecting data attached to page elements and code objects.

Getting started · Bootstrap

JavaScript Promises Safari enables JavaScript authors to more naturally work with asynchronous programming patterns. Template Literals With template literals, web developers can avoid complicated string concatenation, making code easier to read and maintain. Graphics, Fonts, and Text. Font Features Display advanced text styles and effects, such as ligatures, tabular numbers, small caps, and more, just as the font author intended them to be presented on webpages.

Widow and Orphan Support With widow and orphan support, you can specify page breaks and avoid awkward pagination in webpage text. Kerning and Ligatures Text in webpages automatically benefits from support for kerning and ligatures in Safari. Sideways Text Orientation With Safari support for text-orientation: sideways, Safari supports vertical text layouts that have horizontal text within them, helpful for webpages in East Asian languages. Hardware Acceleration Hardware acceleration allows Safari to tap into graphics processing units to display computing-intensive graphics, so standards like HTML5 and CSS3 can deliver rich, interactive media smoothly in the browser.

Anti-Aliased Fonts Thanks to the anti-aliasing algorithm in Safari, you enjoy crisp, gorgeous fonts. Deep Color Take full advantage of displays that support wider color gamuts and extended dynamic ranges to bring new vitality to the images and media on your websites. Right-to-Left Scrollbars Safari recognizes right to left languages and automatically puts scrollbars on the left side of the window for those languages. Color Profile Support The only browser that color-corrects web images, Safari delivers vibrant, accurate color. International Web Content Safari is designed to handle web content from all regions of the world, including a broad range of alphabets, number systems, writing directions, currencies, weights and measurements, date and time formats, and time zones.

Unicode Support Because Safari supports Unicode, the accepted international encoding standard, you can enjoy web content in any number of languages, including Arabic, English, and Japanese. Right-to-Left Text Safari supports multidirectional text rendering, allowing websites drafted in other languages to display characters from right to left. Contextual Letters In many fonts, letters may change their shape and spacing depending on their position in a word. High DPI for image-set Support for high-DPI with the image-set function makes it easier to specify when to use higher-resolution images for displays with high pixel density.

HTML5 Timed Text Tracks Developers can specify the timing of any text that appears with a media element, such as captions or subtitles. More Features. Apple Pay on the Web Give customers an easy and secure way to make purchases in Safari 10 or later. Safari Push Notifications Keep users up-to-date with news and other alerts using Apple push notifications. Learn more Sticky Positioning With sticky positioning, elements can remain fixed within the Safari window even as the user scrolls.

Web Audio API Developers can create and customize audio effects in web applications with rich media content, such as games or instrument simulators. Don't just use Bootstrap, learn UI patterns. These avenues of becoming a front-end developer are typically teacher directed courses, that follow a more traditional style of learning, from an official instructor i. Keep in mind, if you are considering an expensive training program, this is the web! Everything you need to learn is on the web for the taking, costing little to nothing. However, if you need someone to tell you how to take and learn what is low cost to free, and hold you accountable for learning it, you should consider a traditional instructor lead class room setting.

Otherwise, I am not aware of any other profession that is practically free for the taking with an internet connection, a couple of dollars a month for screencasting memberships , and a burning desire for knowledge. For example, if you want to get going today, consuming one or more of the following self-directed resources below can work:. When getting your start, you should fear most things that conceal complexity. Abstractions e. It is assumed that on this journey you are not only learning, but also doing as you learn and investigate tools.

Some suggest only doing to learn. While others suggest only learning about doing. I suggest you find a mix of both that matches how your brain works and do that. But, for sure, it is a mix! So, don't just read about it, do it. Learn, do. Repeat indefinitely because things change fast. This is why learning the fundamentals, and not abstractions, are so important. A great divide has been brewing in the front-end developer space for several years between two very different types of so-called front-end developers.

On the one side, you have JavaScript-focused programmers who write JavaScript for front-end runtimes that likely have computer science skills with a software development history. In , when entering or trying to understand the front-end developer space you will absolutely feel this divide.

The term front-end developer is on the verge of meaninglessness without clarifying words to address what type of front-end developer is being discussed. Below is a list and description of various front-end job titles Keep in mind titles are hard. The common, or most used i.


Front-End Engineer aka JavaScript Developer or Full-stack JavaScript Developer : The job title given to a developer who comes from a computer science, engineering, background and is using these skills to work with front-end technologies. This role typically requires computer science knowledge and years of software development experience. When the word "JavaScript Application" is included in the job title, this will denote that the developer should be an advanced JavaScript developer possessing advanced programming, software development, and application development skills i.

Front-End Web Designer : When the word "Designer" is included in the job title, this will denote that the designer will possess front-end skills i. Front-End Accessibility Expert : When the word "Accessibility" is included in the job title, this will denote that the developer has extensive experience crafting front-end technologies that support accessibility requirements and standards. Front-End Dev. Ops : When the word "DevOps" is included in the job title, this will denote that the developer has extensive experience with software development practices pertaining to collaboration, integration, deployment, automation, and quality.

The following core web technologies are employed by front-end developers consider learning them in this order :. For a comprehensive list of all web related specifications have a look at platform. The nine technologies just mentioned are defined below along with a link to the relevant documentation and specification for each technology. Web browsers can read HTML files and render them into visible or audible web pages. HTML describes the structure of a website semantically along with cues for presentation, making it a markup language, rather than a programming language.

Cascading Style Sheets CSS is a style sheet language used for describing the look and formatting of a document written in a markup language. Along with HTML and JavaScript, CSS is a cornerstone technology used by most websites to create visually engaging webpages, user interfaces for web applications, and user interfaces for many mobile applications. A uniform resource locator URL also called a web address is a reference to a resource that specifies the location of the resource on a computer network and a mechanism for retrieving it.

URLs occur most commonly to reference web pages http , but are also used for file transfer ftp , email mailto , database access JDBC , and many other applications. The nodes of every document are organized in a tree structure, called the DOM tree. Objects in the DOM tree may be addressed and manipulated by using methods on the objects. JavaScript is a high level, dynamic, untyped, and interpreted programming language.

Alongside HTML and CSS, it is one of the three essential technologies of World Wide Web content production; the majority of websites employ it and it is supported by all modern web browsers without plug-ins. JavaScript is prototype-based with first-class functions, making it a multi-paradigm language, supporting object-oriented, imperative, and functional programming styles. Below is a list of all the interfaces that is, types of objects that you may be able to use while developing your Web app or site.

Code for parsing and generating JSON data is readily available in many programming languages. The ECMA standard is minimal, describing only the allowed grammar syntax, whereas the RFC also provides some semantic and security considerations. The JSON filename extension is. Accessibility refers to the design of products, devices, services, or environments for people with disabilities.

Beyond the skills just mentioned, a front-end developer might also be specifically skilled in one or more of the following:. Generally speaking, front-end technologies can run on the aforementioned operating systems and devices using the following run time web platform scenarios:. A front-end developer is typically only one player on a team that designs and develops web sites, web applications, or native applications running from web technologies.

A bare-bones development team for building professional web sites or software for the web platform will typically, minimally, contain the following roles. The roles are ordered according to overlapping skills. It is not uncommon for team members to fill more than one role by taking on the responsibilities of an over-lapping role. It is assumed that the team mentioned above is being directed by a project lead or some kind of product owner i.

The term "Full-Stack" developer has come to take on several meanings.

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So many, that not one meaning is clear when the term is used. Just consider the results from the two surveys shown below. These results might lead one to believe that being a full-stack developer is commonplace. But, in my almost 20 years of experience, this is anything but the case in a professional context. Any person who can fill one or more of these 4 roles at a professional level is an extremely rare commodity. Pragmatically, you should seek to be, or seek to hire, an expert in one of these roles i.

Those who claim to operate at an expert level at one or more of these roles are exceptionally rare. However, given that JavaScript has infiltrated all layers of a technology stack i. Typically, these full-stack developers only deal with JavaScript. A developer who can code the front-end, back-end, API, and database isn't as absurd as it once was excluding visual design, interaction design, and CSS. Still mythical in my opinion, but not as uncommon as it once was. Thus, I wouldn't recommend a developer set out to become a "full-stack" developer. In rare situations, it can work. But, as a general concept for building a career as a front-end developer, I'd focus on front-end technologies.

A plethora of technical job listing outlets exist. The national average in the U. Of course when you first start expect to enter the field at around 40k depending upon location and experience.

This chapter highlights the many resources video training, books, etc. The learning resources identified articles, books, videos, screencasts etc.. It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks of local to global scope, linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless, and optical networking technologies.

The Internet carries an extensive range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents and applications of the World Wide Web WWW , electronic mail, telephony, and peer-to-peer networks for file sharing. A web browser commonly referred to as a browser is a software application for retrieving, presenting, and traversing information resources on the World Wide Web.

Hyperlinks present in resources enable users easily to navigate their browsers to related resources. Although browsers are primarily intended to use the World Wide Web, they can also be used to access information provided by web servers in private networks or files in file systems. In the past, front-end developers spent a lot of time making code work in several different browsers. This was once a bigger issue than it is today. Today, abstractions e. The new challenge is not which browser the user will use, but on which device they will run the browser.

The latest versions of most modern browsers are considered evergreen browsers. That is, in theory, they are supposed to automatically update themselves silently without prompting the user.

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This move towards self-updating browsers has been in reaction to the slow process of eliminating older browsers that do not auto-update. As of today, most front-end developers use Chrome and "Chrome Dev Tools" to develop front-end code. However, the most used modern browsers all offer a flavor of developer tools. Picking one to use for development is a subjective choice. The more important issue is knowing which browsers, on which devices, you have to support and then testing appropriately. The Domain Name System DNS is a hierarchical distributed naming system for computers, services, or any resource connected to the Internet or a private network.

It associates various information with domain names assigned to each of the participating entities. Most prominently, it translates domain names, which can be easily memorized by humans, to the numerical IP addresses needed for the purpose of computer services and devices worldwide. The Domain Name System is an essential component of the functionality of most Internet services because it is the Internet's primary directory service. A web hosting service is a type of Internet hosting service that allows individuals and organizations to make their website accessible via the World Wide Web.

Web hosts are companies that provide space on a server owned or leased for use by clients, as well as providing Internet connectivity, typically in a data center. User Interface Design - User interface design UI or user interface engineering is the design of user interfaces for machines and software, such as computers, home appliances, mobile devices, and other electronic devices, with the focus on maximizing the user experience.

The goal of user interface design is to make the user's interaction as simple and efficient as possible, in terms of accomplishing user goals user-centered design. Interaction Design Pattern - A design pattern is a formal way of documenting a solution to a common design problem. The idea was introduced by the architect Christopher Alexander for use in urban planning and building architecture, and has been adapted for various other disciplines, including teaching and pedagogy, development organization and process, and software architecture and design.

User experience design encompasses traditional human—computer interaction HCI design, and extends it by addressing all aspects of a product or service as perceived by users. Human—Computer Interaction - Human—computer interaction HCI researches the design and use of computer technology, focusing particularly on the interfaces between people users and computers.

Researchers in the field of HCI both observe the ways in which humans interact with computers and design technologies that lets humans interact with computers in novel ways. Minimally I'd suggest reading the following canonical texts on the matter so one can support and potential build usable user interfaces. Search engine optimization SEO is the process of affecting the visibility of a website or a web page in a search engine's unpaid results — often referred to as "natural," "organic," or "earned" results.

In general, the earlier or higher ranked on the search results page , and more frequently a site appears in the search results list, the more visitors it will receive from the search engine's users.